In the ancient region of present-day Italy, Umbria, the Umbrian language was spoken from around 700 to 100 B.C. It is part of the Italic language family, and is very closely related to the Oscan language group. An example of words and their translated English meanings of Umbrian can be found below. There is also a comparison to Latin and Indo-European provided.

Notes for Dictionary:
r’ – a special sybylant in Umbrian, written like Czech [rz]
ç – another peculiar Umbrian sound, written like in French commençons


ager (a field)agerIE *ag’ro- (a field)
ahesnes (copper;
alfu, Pelignan alafis (white)albusIE *albho- (white)
ander (inside)in (in, inside)IE *en (in, inside)
anglome (to the edge)ad angulumIE *ang- (a corner, an edge)
anouihimu (he dresses)induo (I put on)Lithuanian auti (to put on shoes), Armenian aganim (I dress), Avestan aoðrem (a shoe)
arçlataf (a round cake; *argw- (a bow and arrows)
arsfertur (a priest)IE *bher- (to carry, to bring)
arsie (a victim;
arsueitu (I bring, I lead)
atru, adro (black; pl. neut.)atraIE *[email protected] (open fire)
berus (a spear; abl. pl.)verusIE *gwerw- (a wooden spear)
bum (a bull;, gen. bovisIE *gwou- (a bull)
cringatro, krenkatrum (a bandage on the shoulder)Russian krug (a ring), Norse hringr, Old English hring (a ring)
destrame (to the right)in dextramIE *dek’s- (right)
dirsa, dida- (Pelignan) (I give)do (I give), dedi (I gave)IE *dó- (to give)
eho (I, me)egoIE *eg’hom (I, me)
eiscurent (they demanded)
emantur (they are being purchased)emunturIE *em- (to take, to distribute)
enuk (that way)
ere, erek; esmei, eru (this)isIE *so- (this)
esaristrom (a temple; Volscian
esono- (saint)
et (and)etGreek eti (more, over), Phrygian eti, Indic atas (thence)
etants (such in quantity)tantusIE *to- (this)
etru (other;
fakust (makes)facetIE *dhé- (to put)
far (farine)farIE *bhar- (a herb, millet)
ferar (they will bring)feruntIE *bher- (to carry)
fertu (I carry)feroIE *bher- (to carry)
fesnafe, fesnere (to the temple)feriaeIE *dhey- (a god?)
foner (people who favour)faventesSlavic *govêti (to fast), Norse ga (to respect)
fratrom, fratrum (brothers; *bhra’te’r ‘a brother’
furo, furu (a forum)forumIE *dhwer- (an enclosed place, a door)
Grabovius (a god of oak)
heriest (he will wish)hortitur (he encourages)Russian zarkij (greedy), Indic haryati (he adores), Greek khairo (I am glad), Gothic gaírns (greedy)
herter (wants)see above
ier (they go)euntIE *ei- (to go)
iuenga (a heifer)IE *yun- (fresh, young)
iupater, iuvipatri (Jupiter)JuppiterIE *deiwo- (a deity)
karu, karne (a part)
katel, gen. katles (a puppy)catulusNorse hathna (a goat-cub), Serbo-Croatian kotiti se (to whelp)
manuve (a hand; *man- (a hand; power)
mehe, me (me)mihi, meIE *me (me)
ner (a man)IE *ner-, *@ner- (power, strength)
nome, numem (a name)nomen, nominisIE *@nm- (to name, a name)
nos (we)nosIE *nosmes (we; me and them)
onse (a shoulder;
peracri (the best;; sharp)acerIE *ak’- (sharp)
per’i, persi (a foot;, pedisIE *ped- (a foot)
pihaclo (propitiation;
pir (fire)IE *paur- (inanimate fire)
pir’e (something)quidquidIE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
poei (who, which)qui, quodIE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
pracatarum (boundaries;
prever (alone)privus (peculiar, the only)Old Russian oprich (besides)
pune (because)cum < quomIE *kw-
purdouitu (I have given)perdedi
putres-pe (which of the two; gen.)utriqueIE *kwater- (which of the two)
rofu (red)rubus (reddish, rust)IE *reudh- (rust, red)
salu (salt;, salisIE *sal- (dirty, grey; salt)
sent (they are)suntIE *es- (to be)
stahu (I stand)stoIE *stá- (to stand)
sve (if)si
terkantur (let them see)
tota (a country)Gaulish touta (a tribe, people), Gothic thiuda (people), Old Prussian tauto (people), Hittite tuzzi- (an army)
traf (across, through)transIE *tra- (through)
tu, dat. tefe, abl. te (thou)tu, tibi, teIE *tú (thou)
tuplak (double)IE *duwo- (two) + *plek- (to spin)
ukar, ocar (a capitol)ocris (a steep mountain)IE *ok’- (sharp, steep)
ull (that)ille
umtu- (let him smear)
umen (an ointment)unguentum
ute (or)aut
utur (water; une)IE *wed- (wet, water)
vinu (wine)vinumHittite wiana, Greek oinos, Armenian gini
viru, veiru (a man)virIE *wiro- (a man, a human)
vos (you; pl.)vosIE *yus, *wosom (you)