In the ancient region of present-day Italy, Umbria, the Umbrian language was spoken from around 700 to 100 B.C. It is part of the Italic language family, and is very closely related to the Oscan language group. An example of words and their translated English meanings of Umbrian can be found below. There is also a comparison to Latin and Indo-European provided.

Notes for Dictionary:
r’ – a special sybylant in Umbrian, written like Czech [rz]
ç – another peculiar Umbrian sound, written like in French commençons


Umbrian Latin Indo-European
ager (a field) ager IE *ag’ro- (a field)
ahesnes (copper; aenis
alfu, Pelignan alafis (white) albus IE *albho- (white)
ander (inside) in (in, inside) IE *en (in, inside)
anglome (to the edge) ad angulum IE *ang- (a corner, an edge)
anouihimu (he dresses) induo (I put on) Lithuanian auti (to put on shoes), Armenian aganim (I dress), Avestan aoðrem (a shoe)
arçlataf (a round cake; arculatas IE *argw- (a bow and arrows)
arsfertur (a priest) IE *bher- (to carry, to bring)
arsie (a victim;
arsueitu (I bring, I lead)
atru, adro (black; pl. neut.) atra IE *atr@- (open fire)
berus (a spear; abl. pl.) verus IE *gwerw- (a wooden spear)
bum (a bull; bos, gen. bovis IE *gwou- (a bull)
cringatro, krenkatrum (a bandage on the shoulder) Russian krug (a ring), Norse hringr, Old English hring (a ring)
destrame (to the right) in dextram IE *dek’s- (right)
dirsa, dida- (Pelignan) (I give) do (I give), dedi (I gave) IE *dó- (to give)
eho (I, me) ego IE *eg’hom (I, me)
eiscurent (they demanded)
emantur (they are being purchased) emuntur IE *em- (to take, to distribute)
enuk (that way)
ere, erek; esmei, eru (this) is IE *so- (this)
esaristrom (a temple; Volscian
esono- (saint)
et (and) et Greek eti (more, over), Phrygian eti, Indic atas (thence)
etants (such in quantity) tantus IE *to- (this)
etru (other;
fakust (makes) facet IE *dhé- (to put)
far (farine) far IE *bhar- (a herb, millet)
ferar (they will bring) ferunt IE *bher- (to carry)
fertu (I carry) fero IE *bher- (to carry)
fesnafe, fesnere (to the temple) feriae IE *dhey- (a god?)
foner (people who favour) faventes Slavic *govêti (to fast), Norse ga (to respect)
fratrom, fratrum (brothers; fratrorum IE *bhra’te’r ‘a brother’
furo, furu (a forum) forum IE *dhwer- (an enclosed place, a door)
Grabovius (a god of oak)
heriest (he will wish) hortitur (he encourages) Russian zarkij (greedy), Indic haryati (he adores), Greek khairo (I am glad), Gothic gaírns (greedy)
herter (wants) see above
ier (they go) eunt IE *ei- (to go)
iuenga (a heifer) IE *yun- (fresh, young)
iupater, iuvipatri (Jupiter) Juppiter IE *deiwo- (a deity)
karu, karne (a part)
katel, gen. katles (a puppy) catulus Norse hathna (a goat-cub), Serbo-Croatian kotiti se (to whelp)
manuve (a hand; mano IE *man- (a hand; power)
mehe, me (me) mihi, me IE *me (me)
ner (a man) IE *ner-, *@ner- (power, strength)
nome, numem (a name) nomen, nominis IE *@nm- (to name, a name)
nos (we) nos IE *nosmes (we; me and them)
onse (a shoulder;
peracri (the best;; sharp) acer IE *ak’- (sharp)
per’i, persi (a foot; pes, pedis IE *ped- (a foot)
pihaclo (propitiation;
pir (fire) IE *paur- (inanimate fire)
pir’e (something) quidquid IE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
poei (who, which) qui, quod IE *kwi- (relative pronoun)
pracatarum (boundaries;
prever (alone) privus (peculiar, the only) Old Russian oprich (besides)
pune (because) cum < quom IE *kw-
purdouitu (I have given) perdedi
putres-pe (which of the two; gen.) utrique IE *kwater- (which of the two)
rofu (red) rubus (reddish, rust) IE *reudh- (rust, red)
salu (salt; sal, salis IE *sal- (dirty, grey; salt)
sent (they are) sunt IE *es- (to be)
stahu (I stand) sto IE *stá- (to stand)
sve (if) si
terkantur (let them see)
tota (a country) Gaulish touta (a tribe, people), Gothic thiuda (people), Old Prussian tauto (people), Hittite tuzzi- (an army)
traf (across, through) trans IE *tra- (through)
tu, dat. tefe, abl. te (thou) tu, tibi, te IE *tú (thou)
tuplak (double) IE *duwo- (two) + *plek- (to spin)
ukar, ocar (a capitol) ocris (a steep mountain) IE *ok’- (sharp, steep)
ull (that) ille
umtu- (let him smear)
umen (an ointment) unguentum
ute (or) aut
utur (water; une) IE *wed- (wet, water)
vinu (wine) vinum Hittite wiana, Greek oinos, Armenian gini
viru, veiru (a man) vir IE *wiro- (a man, a human)
vos (you; pl.) vos IE *yus, *wosom (you)